Kaltura: How to Work With Captions

Recording of a Previous Session

Description of the following video:

[00:00:00]
>> Thomas: Has links to additional resources. So, you've got a lot of different things that you'll be able to access even after today. So let's talk about some best practices and tips and these are just things that have kind of developed over the time of doing captioning here on campus.

[00:00:20]
So, some of these might seem obvious or may not. The first one is: we always try to stress finding and using commercial content when it's available. Because a lot of times they are doing the closed captioning already and so you don't have to basically re-create the wheel of something that's already been done and out there.

[00:00:39]
With a lot of DVDs, tv shows, movies, streaming services like Netflix, Hulu and Amazon, they will have closed captions. It is usually designated by a "CC" icon. Look out there and see if something already exists so you don't have to re-create it. It makes your life a lot easier.

[00:01:06]
If you do happen to be using something like YouTube, make sure you're trying to use content that is already closed-captioned. A lot of stuff does get auto-generated in YouTube. And people make the mistake of thinking that auto-transcribed captions from YouTube are acceptable for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, and they are not.

[00:01:32]
As we'll talk about a little bit later, there are some things that auto-generated captions do not capture that are needed. Ultimately if you're going to be doing this you're going to need to develop a process for captioning and you want to be consistent in following it. Especially if you're going to be using it at a departamental level.

[00:01:51]
You'll want to make sure that all the folks that are maybe doing this stuff in your department follow the same plan. So that when individuals see captions from your area, they look consistent and there's no differences between them. As far as things that you might want to look out for, one of these things is dealing with source separation.

[00:02:11]
What we mean by that is, in a video you can have multiple audio sources and those audio sources can, depending on how they're configured and set up, cause issues for you. So in the first point I have is loud music with spoken dialogue. So if your music is so loud that it's hard to hear the spoken dialogue and normally if you're trying to watch a video If you have trouble--.

[00:02:38]
You can imagine what's going to happen when the automatically generated captions are trying to be created. There's all this interference and It's really hard for it to interpret what the spoken pieces are. With that in mind, we mention, "excess and background noise". Well, what does that mean? So what we're talking about here are things that interfere with the audio.

[00:02:59]
So if you have a poor mic, or if you get a lot of hisses and pops, and other things that are interfering with the spoken pieces--. Those again can cause issues for the automatically generated captions to be created. Speaking too softly can also be an issue. The technology that tries to do this is not bad, but if you're a whisperer, it's really hard for it to interpret what you're saying.

[00:03:32]
As I mentioned earlier, think about poor microphone placement and usage. So if you have poor audio quality with your recording, it just makes it that much worse for the automatically generated captions. If anybody's ever seen some of the output that comes from YouTube, they know what I'm talking about.

[00:03:47]
It looks horrendous. It's nothing close to what the people are speaking in the video. So, another thing we need to think about when we're creating captions is making a plan for what we call, "specialized vocabulary". So if you work within a particular area of study, you might be using terminology that these auto-generating captioning systems don't recognize.

[00:04:15]
So they're going to do their best to try to interpret it, but they will probably make a lot of mistakes. So if you do use specialized language or you're a little bit lax with the pronunciations--. Keep in mind that these can be points of issue when you get back your auto-generated caption file because it may not be correct.

[00:04:37]
So you have to kind of build it into the process that you're going to have to spend a little bit more time fixing things. Or maybe at the beginning you just re-work the language a little bit so that you maybe have less issues. It's something that you do have to consider when you're going to be working with these files.

[00:05:00]
So some of these things, especially on this slide, are going to come right out of that DCMP captioning key. So one thing you want to think about is, keep it to two lines max for displaying your captions. We don't want to overwhelm the user with visual, textual content with the video.

[00:05:18]
They've done the math on this. There's only so much that you can process simultaneously, and two lines seems to be about it. And with that, you want to keep it under 32 characters per line. And that includes all of the individual letters and spaces between words. Indicate who's talking, this is really important.

[00:05:41]
Especially if you have multiple speakers or narrators that are not on the screen and people don't see them, and don't know that they're talking. So if you know the names of the individuals, include them. If not, you can do a number designation for individual speakers. The "double greater than" sign (> >) is also an indicator of a speaker change.

[00:06:02]
So if you really don't know who the speaker is, it's another way that you can indicate when there's a speaker change in your videos. Indicate sound effects, what's happening on the screen. Sometimes you might be seeing a shot of people running but in the background, but in the background there's gunfire or sirens.

[00:06:19]
But you don't know that because it's not actually happening on the screen. So indicate those sound effects with your caption files. Indicate Music. Now in the editor that Peter's going to show you, there's a tag for doing that. If you're using other tools you can actually embed what's called a "musical note" around either the lyrics or the information for that music.

[00:06:43]
So if you're providing, "This is Tchaikovsky's second score", you can put those symbols around it. And if there is no spoken piece, for example, sometimes they do montages and they show stills or other things and people think that there might be audio but there actually isn't. Indicate that in your captions as well.

[00:07:04]
So, when you're working on these it's good, if you can, to try to keep it to one individual working on the creation of captions. Unless you have a really good plan in place and people follow it to the letter, usually you can find discrepancies between multiple people working on the same caption file for a given project.

[00:07:26]
So that's just something to keep in mind. As always, if you do happen to have a verbatim transcript for the audio in your video, it helps a lot when you're going through and actually creating your captions for your video. Now if any of you happen to be instructors that are in this presentation today, you've got a wonderful resource available to you that you may already know about.

[00:07:52]
The Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL), or the Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning (CITL), depending on which campus you're on. And they can help with a lot of the setup process in terms of if you're doing your own recordings and you need help with the audio component of it.

[00:08:05]
They're a wonderful resource. Get in touch with and they can help you work out the issues so that when you're creating your recordings, you're optimal for the audio piece of it. Then you run into a little bit less issues when you're creating your videos and then later when you're trying to caption them.

[00:08:25]
So these are some things just kind of to think about. There's obviously more information especially if you start digging into the captioning key and look at some other pieces. This is just kind of giving you a run-up on it real quick. I will hand it over to Peter now, who will actually walk you through the process of doing the editing.

[00:08:46]
OK thank you very much, Thomas. I am actually going to jump in here and share my screen to show you Kaltura. But before I do that, I'm going to turn off my video and move a few things around here. I think my video screen may affect what--- Actually no I'll leave it on.

[00:09:01]
You can always just move me around, I suppose. All right let's go check out what Kaltura is. I imagine some of you may not be that similar with it. Kaltura is basically IU's own private YouTube. Can you all see my screen now? My screen share is paused.
>> Participant 1: Peter, all I see is just a pointing finger and then a grayed-out screen.

[00:09:37]

>> Peter: Alright let's see if we can fix that problem here. I'm going to leave that. Okay, and let's go back to our stream there. And last but not least, let me share my screen. Alright there we go. Let me jump over to Kaltura here. Now you should all be able to see it, great!

[00:10:13]

>> Participant 1: Looks good to me!
>> Peter: So this is the Kaltura home page here. And as I was saying earlier, Kaltura is basically a YouTube-like video server for the IU community. So anybody with an IU account can upload their videos here, so that you can share them individually with people or you can make them public to the world.

[00:10:34]
Just like You Tube It has the ability to make playlists and channels. So just to show you a few things here, for example, if you were to go to this "IU Media" button, and you go to "IT Training". We have posted a bunch of videos, so if you wanted to learn Microsoft Excel using videos, you can come here and walk through one of our workshops at your own pace using these training videos.

[00:10:58]
So there's lots of content up here already. Lots of other departments have put things on here as well. One of the nice features about Kaltura is that it's really well integrated into Canvas. So if you're an instructor and you like to use videos, in the past instructors would actually just upload a video into their Canvas site into the resources section.

[00:11:18]
However you only have a limited amount of memory in your Canvas site and video files can be quite large. So if you put a bunch of video on there you can burn through your memory really quickly. The advantage of using Kaltura is you can upload as much video content as you want to Kaltura.

[00:11:34]
And then embed those videos directly into your Canvas site into pages. So you can make playlists and then share those playlists within Canvas and the videos are stored someplace else so they don't affect your Canvas memory. That process works really well. The other thing that's great about that, as an instructor is that if you link to YouTube and you send your students to go watch a video on YouTube--.

[00:11:56]
They may watch your video, but then they're going to see that there's a trailer for the new Star Wars movie. And they'll start doing other stuff on YouTube. If you link them and send them to Kaltura, they're going to be focused on the content that you want them looking at.

[00:12:09]
So that's my personal plug for Kaltura as an instructor. The other great benefit of Kaltura is that it has this Cielo editor which allows you to generate captions and then edit those captions yourself. And that's really our focus today. But before we get to that, I want to show you how to upload a video into Kaltura.

[00:12:31]
It's quite simple. So when you get here in the upper right hand corner, you're going to have the option to Just one moment here so I don't go crazy You'll have the option to look at your media, any media you've done. You'll need to log in, I've already logged in here, so I have the option to log out, but you have these three options.

[00:12:51]
So once you've logged in and you want to add some content to Kaltura, you'll go to, "Add New", and then you have these options here. So if you have a file that's ready to go, you can upload that media using this, and that's what we'll talk about today.

[00:13:04]
But you can also do webcam recordings, you can capture your screen, and do all of this in Kaltura and it will upload the video there. So Kaltura can take control of your camera, do your screen recording for you and then you can upload it. So this is another way too, if you have materials you want to show students, you can do all of that here in Kaltura.

[00:13:23]
It's quite effective. But let's imagine that we have a video that we want to upload that's already done. I would just go to, "Media Upload" and choose a file to upload. I would navigate through my files here, and then say open and it will automatically upload the file there.

[00:13:40]
Once you do that you'll have a few meta data things you have to fill out. You have to give it a title. You have the option for a few things. I have to say it one of the most funny things about Kaltura is after it's uploaded your file and processed it, it will automatically give it searching tags and some of those can be quite humorous.

[00:14:00]
We had a project that was dealing with making posters in PowerPoint and it gave us tags about preacher and taxes and just all kinds of crazy things. So if you like to watch computer algorithms work they're funny magic, that can be fun. So now I want you to imagine that we've already uploaded our file and we want to get to ordering some captions and then editing those captions.

[00:14:24]
So I would go over here to my section and I would grab, "My Media". So it takes me to the videos that I have prepared. There we go. And then here we see I have lots of videos that I've uploaded already from various projects. And you'll notice here that we have an, "Edit" button.

[00:14:45]
You might think that this is where you're going to go, but for our process today of ordering captions you're actually just going to click on the video here. So once I do that it's going to take me to a player for the video. And if I scroll down a little bit on the right hand side we have this, "Actions" section.

[00:15:02]
And this is where we're going to order and where we would go to edit our captions. So I'm going to go ahead and order some captions for this you can see that process. So I click on "Order Captions". And then I get a few more options here. Now Kaltura is really great in that it can deal with multiple languages so it's not just English.

[00:15:22]
If I click here, there's actually sixteen languages that it can generate captions for. It's got most of the most frequently spoken European languages. It's got Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Turkish, so a lot of options there that can be helpful. So you'll want to designate what the media language is of your particular file.

[00:15:46]
There's also this option for requesting a foreign language translation. I think that costs a little bit more money. Thomas, do you know anything specific about that? The requesting foreign language transition?
>> Thomas: A little bit, it's a separate service. Why is that there still? You can request it and it's an additional fee thing that we need to work out.

[00:16:14]
It kind of falls under when you're doing the professional captioning. It's a paid thing, it's not something that you get for free. Is it alright if I make one other note real quick too?
>> Peter: Absolutely.
>> Thomas: The one thing I wanted to let everybody know is we're going through this process and doing it manually, which is great if you happen to have a video that is in one of the supported foreign languages.

[00:16:38]
The thing you need to know about this is that whenever you upload media into Kaltura media space, it well automatically caption it. So the thing that Peter is showing you right now, especially for English, is that it will automatically caption it once it's uploaded into Kaltura. But if you're dealing with another language as the source language, you're probably going to need to go in and do this so you can set the appropriate language.

[00:17:07]
It's quite funny what the results are when you use a video that is in a foreign language and it spits back the English results.
>> Peter: Thank you, that's actually a really good point. So yeah, when you throw these files up there, Kaltura, in the background, is going to try to caption them.

[00:17:22]
And that's what you see here initially with this little "CC" button. The thing about those captions is you can edit them, but it's a different process for editing them. You would actually have to download the caption file, put it into a text editor, and then edit it as you watch the video and then re-upload the file.

[00:17:39]
So that's a little labor intensive and the way that we're going to show you today keeps everything within Kaltura and works quite nicely.
>> Thomas: Actually the Cielo editor will work with the automatically generated ones.
>> Peter: Excellent!
>> Thomas: So, it doesn't matter. Especially this part that's good for content that's non-English.

[00:18:07]
The automatically generated captions, when you go back to show them the editing, should be available there for you to edit.
>> Peter: Okay, well let's take a look here. So we have two options here under this fidelity. So the professional is the default that it's set up for here.

[00:18:23]
You'll have to order these. There are these sixteen languages that are all available, and as Thomas mentioned this costs money. So I believe the standard seven-day turnaround time for this cost $1.42 per minute of video. And if you want to do the rush hour, the 48 hour delivery is $1.62 a minute and there's also a processing fee.

[00:18:46]
So if you're a department that has plenty of money to throw around, then the professional option may be good for you. Today we're going to look a little bit at this mechanical option. So this is the second option here, and if I click this, I get a few less options here.

[00:19:01]
There's also less languages that it can deal with. So there's only these six languages currently for the mechanical captioning. And they claim that these are 70%-80% accurate and I trust them on that. However if you do them, as we were mentioning earlier, these are not sufficient for the hearing impaired.

[00:19:21]
You do you need to clean them up a little bit. So once you've decided if you want, "Professional" or, "Mechanical", you'll just click, "Order Captions". And it will go on in the background. You get a little message here saying that it will be automatically uploaded once they're done.

[00:19:39]
What's interesting here is that it says that it takes 24 hours, but really it can be much faster than that. I uploaded this video this morning and ordered them and it came back to me, in I believe, fifteen minutes. They were already ready to go. So the process here can be very fast.

[00:19:55]
So, let's now jump into--. We've ordered them, and since I did it earlier, they're already there. If I want to edit the captions now that they're complete, I go to this, "Edit Captions". And I'm going to go to these here that say that they're complete. And here we have the Cielo editor.

[00:20:14]

>> Video Speaker: "All right so in the last video we created this rectangle...".
>> Peter: And that Speaker was our video playing it. It automatically starts playing as soon as you open it up. So to take a look at this interface here. On the left hand side, this is its version of the auto generated captions.

[00:20:32]
So this is the entire text from our video here. All of the audio converted into text. And you'll notice that each one of these is one sentence long, so they all end in a period. So that's how it kind of parses this stuff up in its algorithm. Up here in the top left hand corner we have this little "Filter" button.

[00:20:52]
If you click on this, you can actually see the time stamps so you can see how long this caption goes from. You can also add speaker ID's in here. We haven't set those yet, but we have that option as well. If you want to, sometimes it can help to see where you are there.

[00:21:07]
In the middle of the display here we have the viewer. And as you can see we have the play buttons here we can have it play. This button will jump this forward to the next sentence. This one will go to the beginning of this sentence. And this one says it will go to the start of the last sentence.

[00:21:24]
In my experience these two buttons sometimes do the same thing. Occasionally it seems to get a little lost within the file. But it's easy enough to move around with these buttons and a few other hot keys. The other interesting feature right over here, is this which is where we can assign the speakers.

[00:21:41]
So we have a few buttons here where we can move between them. And below that we have the editing window. so this yellow window is the caption that we're currently editing and you'll also see that it's the same one that's up here in yellow as well. Once you start editing these guys and make changes, they will appear on the left hand side in kind of a greenish-blue color.

[00:22:04]
Which we can see here. I'll do one of these for you right now so you can see how it's changed. So now, since I edited that first line-- I added a comma, now it's changed color so we know that we've worked on it already. Below the editing window here or right around it, you'll see that we get the sentence before the one that we're working on.

[00:22:24]
And then we also get the sentence after it. This helps to give you a little bit of context as you're working through these. Sometimes it'll cut up the sentence too early, and if you look down here you can see, ' clearly that content is supposed to go with this'.

[00:22:39]
So you'll know how to change it. Below that we also have these buttons for, "Save" and "Approve". The save button is super important. You need to like with all applications, save regularly. It's very frustrating to get through a chunk of you know, four minutes of video work that might have taken you fifteen minutes or twenty minutes to do and then occasionally Cielo will freeze or crash.

[00:23:04]
And if that happens you lose your work. So like everything on a computer, save often. Once you've done all of your edits and you're satisfied that you've got the captioning complete and representing what's on the video, you can press "Approve". And then it will be submitted and it will become the caption in the standard caption file that opens up with the video.

[00:23:24]
A few other things here, we'll get to these guys in just one second. As you can imagine, with the "Play Until the End of Sentence" button, if I press play, it's only going to give me this sentence. If I have, "Play Until End of Video" selected, it will continue moving through the captions as they come.

[00:23:40]
Up in the upper right hand corner here, we have a few more options. The default here is this, "Help" section and what this really does is just give you a list of hot keys that are useful as your editing and working on your captions. So this is the default.

[00:23:58]
Here in the speaker setting-- this is where you're going to add a speaker. I would recommend doing this right at the beginning of your editing work. If you know who the speakers are, go ahead and do this. So I'm going to go ahead and add this in. I know that the speaker on this is Andy, and we have the option here too of selecting the gender for the speaker.

[00:24:18]
So it can be male or female. Andy, in this case is a man, so we're going to add Andy in there. And so now when I go to-- I believe I have everything selected there--. Now when I go to my speakers, I have Andy as an option. So I can go to my first caption and set Andy as the speaker.

[00:24:41]
And now it will be clear that he's the guy in red. I don't know if you can see this on your screen--. You can't quite see it here, but there's a little color here representing our speaker. That is how that works, so once we've set our speaker we can start to look more at editing these guys in detail.

[00:25:07]
I'm going to go back to our, "Help" section here so you can see these hotkeys again. There's really two workflows-- well there's probably more than two worksflows, but in my playing around with this tool, I've sort of discovered two workflows that seem to work. And they depend on the situation.

[00:25:22]
So for a video where I'm not familiar with the contents and I'm seeing it for the first time--. A lot of times you have to actually listen to all of the video as you're going along because occasionally the algorithm will make mistakes in the words that it chooses.

[00:25:41]
It might leave out some content because it just can't understand what's being said. So you need to listen along and make sure that what's being said is what's being written here. So to do that you want to just play. You can either use these buttons up here or I would recommend getting familiar with some of the hotkeys that are listed here for playing.

[00:26:02]
So for example the, "control" key plus the spacebar will--.
>> Video Speaker: "Alright, so in the last video we--".
>> Peter: --start up and stop the video from playing. So that's a very convenient hotkey to use just to get things going. Now let's actually go through this. I'm going to set this on, " Play Until the End of Video" and give you a sense of what happens here as we mess around.

[00:26:22]
So we're going to play and--.
>> Video Speaker: "We created this rectangle which looks great, we--".
>> Peter: OK so I hear there's a problem because that's the end of a sentence.
>> Video Speaker: "--a fill color and we change the stroke to nothing".
>> Peter: And since I'm in this, "Play Until the End of Video", I made that correction and it paused for just a moment, and then it kept advancing forward.

[00:26:46]
So that can be kind of tricky because I need to go back and make sure everything on this one is right. Okay it looks pretty good. Then I go to the next one. And if it's still playing, sometimes it rifles through these tabs quite quickly and it's difficult to keep up.

[00:27:00]
Now one thing that happens here when we're in this play mode is that anytime I move my cursor around it's going to pause the sound just for one second. So I'm going to play that again and let you see how that goes here. So I'm playing--.
>> Video Speaker: "We added a filter--".

[00:27:17]

>> Peter: And you'll see when I move forward there that the green bar gave a little message that it's pausing.
>> Video Speaker: "If I change against the stroke to nothing".
>> Peter: You'll see it's said, 'Resuming in two seconds'. So it's set up right now to automatically pause for two seconds any time I try to make an edit.

[00:27:36]
You can change the amount of times that it pauses when you do make an edit if you're in this mode. And you do that up here in the, "Settings" tool. So if you click on, "Settings", we have the, "Seconds to pause on edit". And right now it's set for two.

[00:27:49]
I find sometimes when I'm in the flow that that's actually a little long and I can do it just with one second. But this is where you would change that for yourself. Now the other interesting tool here is that you have, "control" key plus, "1" will just play the video at normal speed.

[00:28:04]
"Control" key plus, "2" will play the video at double speed. So if you want to just burn through some of the content quickly it will do that. And the last one here, "control" key plus, "3" will let you play the video at half speed. So let me show you what that sounds like so you can get a sense of that.

[00:28:21]

>> Video Speaker: "Now we're going to learn how to draw an ellipse shape". "Now--".
>> Peter: OK so I saw that there should be a comma here. So it paused for me.
>> Video Speaker: "You might wonder why we don't call it a circle". "Well--".
>> Peter: And again because I moved, it's paused and then it's resuming in two seconds but I see that there's another problem here.

[00:28:50]
I need, "illustrated" to be capitalized.
>> Video Speaker: "Illustrator uses--".
>> Peter: So this tool, first of all is kind of fun, just because it's fun to hear these speakers sound like they're falling asleep or waking up first thing in the morning. Or on heavily sedated medication. But as funny as it is, this tool can actually can be very helpful.

[00:29:12]
Occasionally you'll do a video where the speakers talk very quickly and it's difficult to make out what they're saying. If you put it at half-time, you can generally and frequently understand what they're actually saying. It's also good, if there's missing content, you can go in and find it using that that feature.

[00:29:30]
When I was playing around with this, when I was playing through the video slowly, I was getting times of it taking about four and a half minutes to get through a single minute of video. So it's pretty slow. Using some of the tools I'm going to show you in a second, I got my captioning time down to two and a half minutes, typically for one minute of video.

[00:29:52]
So there is a faster way to get through this, and that's what I'd like to show you right now. So I'm going to go ahead and reset back to the regular speed here and talk about a few more hotkeys that are helpful. So on the keyboard as they have listed here you can use the, "tab" key, which will jump you forward to the next caption.

[00:30:18]
So you'll see there on the left hand side, every time I press, "tab", the yellow bar is jumping down to the next caption. So that's a really easy way to jump ahead. If you press the, "shift" key plus, "tab", it will move you backwards to the previous caption.

[00:30:32]
So those two keys are very helpful for moving around quickly in between the tabs. And then there's a few others that you should know about that aren't listed here. And these are ones that work throughout windows keyboards. I don't know how many people use them but they're really handy for this kind of editing.

[00:30:48]
So most of them deal with the, "control" key. So if I'm at the beginning of a line, and I need to jump forward several words, I could just hold down the, "right arrow" key and that will move me like this. Or I can do, "control" plus the, "right arrow" and it jumps me immediately to the beginning of the next word.

[00:31:06]
So you can see it's really easy to jump around here if I use that, "control" key. So you can do that with, "control" plus, "right arrow" and, "control" plus "left arrow" to move backwards and forwards one word at a time. So that's a big help. Another one that's helpful is the, "home" key.

[00:31:23]
So if my cursor is here at the end of this caption and I hit the, "home" key it jumps right to the beginning of the line that I'm currently on. And similarly if I used the, "end' key it'll push me to the end of whatever line of text I'm on.

[00:31:37]
So if I'm in the middle of this and I know there's a mistake at the end I can just hit, "end" and it gets me right there. So again the "home" key, the "end" key", the "control" plus "right arrow", and "control" plus "left arrow"--. Those are your buddies when you're in the thick of it here trying to edit these captions down.

[00:31:55]
Great, so let's take a quick look at what some of the common problems are and things you're going to face. As I mentioned earlier the program automatically divides up your audio into sentences, so every one of these guys has a period at the end of it. And what you'll find as you look through this is that it does only an okay job of figuring out where the sentences are but not always.

[00:32:20]
So let's just take a look at this particular caption we're looking at right here. So it says, "OK so this is a rectangle, it is not a square, being a square in geometry has a certain definition which means all the sides are equal". So something crazy is going on here, right?

[00:32:36]
Let's go back to the beginning and go ahead and give this a period right here. Because that's just a little interjection he said that's not really part of our content. Once I put that period there, if I click outside of the editor, it's going to automatically push the rest of that into the next caption.

[00:32:54]
So with that, "OK", what came after it is now after this. And if I press, "tab", you'll see that's the rest of the sentence that was there. So adding a period and then clicking away from the editing window will sort of divide up your caption into two parts.

[00:33:11]
And in this one--. Again I'm going to move back here--. We need a comma here. With, "So this is not a square"--. There's actually some missing content here and I know this because I've already watched the video. The captioning didn't pick up everything that Andy said here. And what he actually said was, "because" so this is a rectangle and this is actually another one.

[00:33:33]
There's a period here. And what he really said was, "It's not a square". And again, I've divided this up and it doesn't show yet that this is two captions. But if I click out of this or if I just press, "tab"--. Again, "tab" jumps me to the next caption.

[00:33:52]
--It's made that change for me. So you can see that we've done that there. And then we have, "It's not a square because a square in geometry has a certain definition which means all it's sides are equal". So that's the end of our sentence and we're happy with that.

[00:34:04]
Now imagine that it had put the period here too soon. That this was not actually where the period should go, and that the content after it should be--. In fact let's find one of these. What's a good one where it's obviously got some problems? Well let me just show you quickly what happened.

[00:34:32]
So if I erase this period, it automatically takes the next caption and adds it to the one that I'm working on. So any time you do that, if these were meant to be together, you would erase that period and then you would have to deal with the capitalization here.

[00:34:45]
So that's what's going to happen as we do those. A few other things you're going to have to deal with besides the capitalization and punctuation with these periods is, occasionally as Thomas mentioned, it has problems with specialized vocabulary. So here's a caption that has an issue in it.

[00:35:06]
So one problem might be if you're dealing with pie, as in the delicious food that your mom makes, you know what she makes an apple pie or you could have pie, as in the mathematical term. Which would just be, "pi". And so a lot of times these algorithms can't figure out the difference between homonyms.

[00:35:24]
So that could be something to look out for. In this case we actually have an issue with this. It says, "you know Piet" and what he actually means here is, "pi" like the movie. Yes, "pi" like the movie, "The Life of Pi", or the mathematical term. Because he's talking about a radius and some geometrical ideas here.

[00:35:43]
So watch out for homonyms. Another issue that can come up is, as we said earlier, jargon. So you'll remember in that early slide that we looked at here--. With "illustrator" it came back initially from the editor, this "I" was a lowercase because it doesn't know that we're talking about the program Illustrator.

[00:36:01]
So sometimes you have to look out for that kind of specialized technical vocabulary. A few other things here--. Thomas also mentioned that one of the big problems with these auto-generated captions is that they don't include the sound effects and some of the other things that are going on that are not obvious.

[00:36:19]
And what's great about the Cielo editor is that there's some shortcuts for adding those in. So they give you a list of those right here and I'll show you how that works. So imagine that there was some music in the middle of the sentence. If I go back here and just type, "mmm", it immediately gets me that music caption or notice in there.

[00:36:42]
So that's a very helpful thing and there's a few others here. If there's blank audio--, so let's imagine that at the end of the sentence, there's just fifteen seconds of silence where nothing is going on. If you are hard of hearing you might not understand there's nothing going on.

[00:36:57]
So if you type, "iii", it'll show you that there's something. Actually that's the wrong code. That would be for if you can't understand something. The blank audio code is, "bbb". So that would indicate that there's some silence there. Another one that's helpful is if you have a video where there are several people speaking, and occasionally they will talk over each other and it's difficult to determine who's saying what.

[00:37:18]
And if that happens, "ttt" will give you, "crosstalk", to give you the sense that there are multiple things going on there and it's hard to work out who is saying exactly what. Great. That is most of what I wanted to say. I'm going to--, Thomas you have anything else you'd like to add here before we go to our main points?

[00:37:41]

>> Thomas: There is one thing. But this comes up more when you start looking through the captioning key. When you indicate other elements in the caption file, like music or blank audio or things like that, you will usually indicate it either before or after the text. You usually don't put it in the middle of the text..

[00:38:08]
Just because it breaks up the structure of the sentence. I have never seen one word where it puts it right in the middle of the text. Kind of use that judiciously. In some cases with the "crosstalk", if you can make it out--. I have seen cases where if you have multiple speakers speaking simultaneously and you can make out who they are, you can do a line with each speaker.

[00:38:38]
But it's hard in the editor here because it makes choices about that. So that's one area where it's kind of hard to do things with the built in editor. So if you have a multi-speaker piece and you need to designate each speaker, it's hard to do it, considering the way that the editor responds.

[00:38:56]
Because you can't put a period in create new a new individual track line for that caption. So if you have to deal with that, at least in the editor, "crosstalk" might be a little bit better when you're doing it.
>> Peter: Yeah that's a great point. Before I cut out of here, I want to show you again, in process, looking at one of these, kind of a longer caption.

[00:39:21]
And let's look at what would happen here as we're editing this. So it says, "Now we're going to set the fill color to start and the way we do that is we click". And again this speaker was not working from a script, so it's very conversational and that can get tricky.

[00:39:41]
You have to make a lot of editing decisions about where sentences end, because sometimes there'll be sort of a parenthetical sentence inside of a sentence. But in this case I'm going to go ahead and put a period there. And then it says, "make sure nothing selected"--. That should probably be, "make sure nothing is selected first".

[00:39:59]
"Because If we have something selected in change, the fill color--". Okay and again there's some content missing here. So in this case it probably would be good to listen to this to make sure.
>> Video Speaker: "Now, we're going to set the fill color to start, and the way we do that is we click-- make sure nothing is selected first because if we have something selected and change the fill color".

[00:40:17]

>> Peter: So he said, "if we have something selected and change", so the algorithm is having trouble differentiating between, "in" and, "and And let's continue on here.
>> Video Speaker: "Then it will change the color of that shape we don't want that so--".
>> Peter: And with this, I think there should be a period here as well.

[00:40:34]
And again, every time I put these periods in, it's actually going to parse these into separate captions and we'll see that in just a second. So we have a new sentence starting here. "We don't want that so click over here and clicking several times right here to make sure nothing is selected and then I'm going to click the fill color which is right here".

[00:40:53]
So here again you could make a choice of how you want to divide this up. And actually for our purposes, I'm going to divide all of these up. You have to become comfortable with how correct you want the grammar to be when you're dealing with real life spoken speech.

[00:41:13]
It's often times not grammatically correct. And what you want is just to separate ideas so that the reader can understand the flow of the content here. So then, "clicking several times right here to make sure nothing is selected", and then I'm going to go ahead and put another period in.

[00:41:26]
"And then I'm going to click the fill color which is right here". Now when I press, "tab", it's going to jump me ahead to the next sentence. But if I go with, "shift" plus "tab", I can then check out those captions that I just did and make sure that they're all okay.

[00:41:43]
So even though you don't see the editing work happening initially as soon as you tab out of that or leave that edit, it does all of the changes that you made. So that's the basic process there and with that--. I'm going to go back to our Powerpoint presentation here and get us to our final points that we wanted to share with you.

[00:42:04]
So remember that as Thomas was saying, these auto-generated captions that it does automatically, they don't qualify as equal access so you are going to need to do a little bit of editing. You should definitely check out those captioning key guidelines. So that you can make sure you're following what's necessary and making your content as readable as possible for people who are hard of hearing or deaf.

[00:42:29]
There are tools and resources to help you to add close captions to your media. So this Cielo editor that we've shown in Kaltura is a great one. If you work with YouTube, it also has a caption editing tool within it. I actually think this Kaltura one is superior, having played around with both of them.

[00:42:45]
But it's there as well, and if you're a regular YouTube user and you have a lot of content there already, you might want to play around with that. Just remember Kaltura is there for you, so please make use of it. It's a really great service that we have.

[00:42:59]
And lastly as you're doing your projects save often! I can't emphasize enough how frustrating it is to do some of this work. It's very detail oriented work and to have to re-do it is maddening. So that's about all I have. Thomas, do you have any other comments you want to leave us with?

[00:43:16]

>> Thomas: The one thing I was thinking about towards the very end is, if you're looking at what you're creating and you find for whatever reason that there are limitations with the editor---. Keep in mind, you can export out the caption file and use an external editor if you need to do something a little more advanced.

[00:43:36]
So, this editor is a great option, it's built in to try to make it easy for you. But if you find yourself in a situation where it doesn't completely meet your needs, you do have other options.
>> Peter: Great, and we also have time for questions. So if anyone has anything they'd like to ask us about regarding our experiences using these tools or using this technology we're happy to answer any questions you might have.

[00:44:00]
I'm going to go ahead and stop sharing my screen. So that I can see what's going on here. And also as we mentioned at the beginning, to get the Powerpoint that we've just shared with you, click on the link there in the chat pod and you can download it.

[00:44:20]
It has all of those hotkeys that I was talking about. They are included in the Powerpoint, so it's a handy reference tools for you. It also has the guides to captioning that Thomas showed at the beginning of the session. Great, well if there's no questions thank you so much for being a part of the presentation today.

[00:44:43]
We appreciate it. And we look forward to helping you, if you have any further questions. We've got a question here. Jen, if you want you can just activate your microphone and tell us your question or you can type in the chat pod there.
>> Thomas: So okay, yeah. So for the mechanical--.

[00:45:16]
So the thing that's done automatically when you upload it into Kaltura, or like Peter showed you, go through and actually request the mechanical--. There is no charge for that. I think this has been active since February of this year. And I think that there has been somewhere in the magnitude of over fifty thousand pieces of content that have been mechanically captioned.

[00:45:44]
So a lot of people have gotten the mechanical transcripts, and there's been no charge. So, any time you upload the content into Kaltura media space, and it generates the mechanical captions for you, whether automatically or you request it--. There is no charge for that. Hopefully she got that.

[00:46:15]

>> Peter: Yeah, no problem, Jen. Any other questions out there? Again, I would say that you know there's a little bit of a learning curve using the tool and getting comfortable moving around within the captions using those hotkeys. But I went from times of like four minutes to do one minute of video, to getting it down to two and a half minutes.

[00:46:34]
Especially if it was one speaker and some content that I was familiar with, you can really cut down the time and it's not too bad. Especially if the videos aren't too long. When the videos are like an hour long, then you're talking about three hours of editing captions, which can be pretty grueling.

[00:46:51]

>> Thomas: Yeah that's part of it, you can run a factor for two-four to one in terms of your time. It really depends on the audio quality, and how comfortable you are using the tools. A whole bunch of factors. Once you get really comfortable with it, you will get a little bit faster.

[00:47:07]
Probably at the beginning when you're feeling things out, it will seem like it takes a lot longer.
>> Peter: Great, well if there's no more questions, thank you so much for participating. We'll hang out here in the room for a little bit longer. We'll probably turn our video off, but feel free to type anything into the chat there and we will answer it as best we can.

[00:47:28]
Thank you so much for participating and we look forward to seeing you again in a workshop sometime soon.


This webinar explains how to use captions to make videos more accessible to deaf and hearing impaired users. It also reviews how to caption videos using Katura's Cielo Editor.